Spinoza - Philosopher, Mystic, Rosicrucian
During the period of Simon Studion´s life, these are some of the influential historical moments that coloured the environment and the thoughts of people of Europe at that time. It was the time of the Renaissance, Humanism, and The General Reformation, which spread, these were challenged, and survived the challenge. It was a time of considerable political upheaval, The Plague, The Inquisition, The burning and torture of people, Witch Trials, and the conflicts of diverse religious beliefs such as the Huguenots` War (1562-1598), the Bartholomew Night (1572), the fall of the Netherlands (1581), and the Execution of Queen Mary Stewart, in Scotland (1587); the sinking of the Spanish Armada (1588). After the Schmalkaldische War (1546-1547), the people of Württemberg were able to live in peace for quite some time. The state religion in 1565 was Evangelic Lutheranism, established by Duke Ulrich (who I think was the founder of the Tübinger Stift with his son Christopher(?). This secured a peacefully organised church order for a short period of time, at least until the start of the thirty years war which infected parts of Europe from 1618 to 1648.
Nikodemus Frischlin mentions Simon Studion in his diaries, as does Martini Crusius in his diaries. The Crusius, 'Diarium Martini Cr., were published by a Go(e)z-Conrad, in Tu(e)bingen in 1927. I also think that the diaries of Nikodemus Frischlin were also published. His brother Jakob Frischlin wrote a 'History of the people of Württemberg' and Studion wrote his 'History of Württemberg' at about the same time. Studion continued the work of Joachim of Floris and Paracelsius, and the 'Chemical Wedding' of Andreae continued the thread from the thoughts and work of Studion. According to the historian and author of "The Rose Cross", Will Erich Peuckert, it was out of the work of Studion and his 'Societas Cruce Signati' and those marked by the cross, that the Tubinger Circle with Andreae and his friends, that the re-newed Order of the Rosicrucians grew and evolved. This was a result of the alliance of the Crucesignati of Studion. Studion wanted to call a second meeting like the one held in Lüneburg, at Konstanz, a sort of second Konstanz Reform Council. Studion was looking for the 3 'witnesses', one of whom he may have thought as being himself. It has been speculated that Martin Luther was the first, Studion the second. An Elias the Artist (Alchemist) was mentioned to arrive after 1593. Walter Hagen goes as far as to suggest that Tobias Hess (friend of Studions), and Besold with other friends regarded Johann Valentin Andreae as being the 3rd 'witness'. "Did not Studion write that Crosses had fallen from Heaven in the town of Herrenberg, as far back as 1501?" (Herrenberg = Mountain of God?), and was also where Andreae was born. Back to Andreae and his 'Turris Babel' and regarding the 'Chaos' of the RC in the title of his book: "Turris Babel sive Judiciorum de Fraternitate Rosaceae Crucis Chaos", Straßburg 1619, S.. 14-15. My thoughts about the book, after reading about it from a few other sources, but without having read it myself, Andreae´s purpose was to try and 'correct' the misunderstandings, and misuse that was caused by the three Rosicrucian Manifestoes, and the 'flurry of RC activity' that manifested after their publication. His second purpose was to 'close it down', but on the other hand the word 'Chaos' had another meaning to others: To Paracelsus it was that which was between Heaven & Earth. He also speaks of a 'Chaos mineral' that feeds all which does not move? Later on the word was enlarged upon by being called 'Aurea catena Homeri'. And 'Fiat' became steam, fog, smoke, that became chaotic water that solidified , then in Heaven or from which(?), fire, air, water, and earth be extracted. In Welling's Opus magocabbalisticum, chaos is described as being a 'slimy sulphurous salt water' (see Kopp), and in one of the Heinrich Khunrath pictures, you can see that the 'Chaos' is a black globe within the earth.
I have an idea that the 'Chemical Wedding' may also have been a representation of an attempt to join the two houses of the Order of the Lily of the French House with the Order of the Rose of the English House.
If you read 'Yates' she believes that Andreae got his ideas and inspiration for his book from the enormous festivities that were held at that time for the Knighting of Duke Friedrich I., of Württemberg, in Stuttgart, into the "Most Noble Order of the Garter". Queen Elizabeth I. confirmed the choice of her, 'Cousin Mumpellgart' as she called him, in 1597, but it was not until November of 1603 that his investiture and Knighting took place through her envoy Jakob I. The joining of two rings represents a wedding so if you look at the cross upon a globe then you will see that the vertical line of the Lily, (spiritual world and red in heraldry) is a circle that is joined to the horizontal line of the Rose (physical world and blue in heraldry) are joined at the point of Quintessence, which is the point of light which opens The Stone and is the life blood of the Rose. When these two worlds are perfected they unite with one another creating the 5th point or Quintessence. According to Yates, the Naometria of Simon Studion contains some music and verses dedicated to the eternal friendship of the Lily (the King of France), the Lion (Jackob I. of England) and the Nymph (Duke of Württemberg). The source of the idea for the founding of the Order of the Garter could have originated from the stories of King Arthur and the Holy Grail. As an example, the "Round Table" that hangs on the wall in the Great Hall of Winchester Castle is 18 feet in diameter, and made of solid oak, and weighs approximately one and a quarter tons. The table was made during the reign of Edward III, probably in 1344 when the King conceived the idea of an order of chivalry based upon the Knights of the Round Table as reflected in the popular Romances of the Arthurian legends during the Middle Ages. It was in 1348 that the King abandoned the idea, and instead founded the Order of the Garter. Erhard Cellius, a professor in Tübingen, wrote a detailed report about the ceremony and the festivities in Latin that was published in Stuttgart in 1605. He also wrote that another of the bearers of the Order from England was a Robert Spenser, (a relation of the Poet?). According to Yates these festivities were also mentioned by Elias Ashmole in his history of the "Order of the Garter". You will also find the coat of arms of the Order on the title page of John Dee´s "General and Rare Memorials, pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation", 1577.
It is believed that the three authors of the Rosicrucian Manifestos, Fama Fraternitatis (1614), Confessio Fraternitatis (1615), and Chemical Wedding: Christiani Rosencreutz. Anno 1459 (1616), were Dr. Tobias Hess (1558-1614), who was a lawyer and a practicing Paracelsian doctor; Prof. of Law of Tübingen Christoph Besold (1577-1738), and the main author of The Chemical Wedding, the young Johann Valentin Andreae (1586-1654). At about 1610 in Tübingen, (Tübingener Circle) the three manifestoes were completed and between 1614-1616 they were printed with regards to the general reformation of the world. (Pietism appeared about 90 years later). Hess was accused of being a Chilialist and was interrogated (on July 1st, 1620???) because of his prophecies regarding the end of the world. Hess identified mystical numbers and particular times of chronology with the key of David. --(Rev. 3,7), Besold, was an apostate. Schutz, was a distant nephew of Johann Valentin Andreae, whose father was a priest in Herrenalb, and was an even better alchemist. Joseph Mead (1586-1638) was a Chilialist and knew Christian Knorrs of Rosenroth - his book (1570) was in Andreae´s possession. Also regarding the subject of Johann Valentin Andreae and the "Fama"...The first part of the 'Fama' was removed. The text that was removed was in fact 'part of' a translation of a 'satirical' text called 'Ragguagli di Parnasso' by the Italian Trajan(o) Boccalini (1556-1613) and first appeared in Germany in 1612/13. With an introduction by Besold. In the Confessio there is also mention of the 'New Star' (1604) and 'The Snake' and 'The Swan', 'Cygno' (Cygnus). Wense was a close friend of Andreaes, and of Tobias Adam(i) who was also one of the so called 'older' generation of Rosicrucians belonging to the Tübinger Kreis, as Besold and his close friend Abraham Hoelzel. I believe that the work of Traiano Boccalini (Was Traiano Boccalini a Rosicrucian?) was translated by a Wilhelm Bidembach, who was also a member of the Tubinger Kreis and friend of Andreaes.
In his book 'Turbo' (1616) 'the crazy one', an autobiography that was also a Latin drama, Andreae is 'critical' of the Chiliastic aspects of the 'Naometria' of Studion. Johann Valentin Andreae also mentions 'his' copy of the Naometria of Studion in his book 'Turris Babel' (1619) which contains 24 Dialogues (24 views, opinions of the RC?) I have read also that Andreae had compiled a list of 24 names of people who were to belong to his (Andreaes') new society that he was planning to set up (Frick). The start of the list is with the name Trajan(o) Boccalini and the list ends with 'Resipiscenz' = the last one, closed, ended. In the same article the names of Joh. Arndt, J. Gerhard, Saubert, and Wilhelm von Wense of Lüneburg (15..-1641) were mentioned, and according to some of the information that I have up till now been able to find, the 'Turris Babel' was Andreae´s answer to the misuse and misunderstandings, and the trouble that resulted from the publication of the 'Fama' and the 'Confessio' that were compiled by the Tubinger Circle (Society), Besold and Hess. Andreae was the author of the 'Chemical Wedding' but I think, only in as far as he compiled the story and background and put a 'new' coat upon an 'old' body. My thinking is that Andreae got the 'idea' for the background story from the enormous festivities that were taking place at that time that involved Herzog Friedrich I. of Württemberg and his Investiture and Knighting into the 'Order of the Garter' in 1603 in Stuttgart (see Frances A. Yates).
The alpha and omega or the 7 stages of the history of the world from the birth of Christ. Do you remember the alchemical picture of the squaring of the circle that united the above 3 points ? See the picture of the engraving of the Squaring of the Circle in Michael Maier´s Atalanta Fugiens of 1618, where the large circle representing the Lapis philosophorum encircles the Conflict of Opposites in the world of Alchemical Geometry and Sacred Science. On the ground you will also see a Cross-staff which is another important instrument of measurement which is also well worth looking into. This is also a subject that was of interest to Johannes Kepler, and others like him. The "Mystical Arithmatic" of Nicholas of Cusa, (1401-1464) may also be another example of the Work manifested through a beacon of fire. It should be remembered that it was the fashion of the time, for some people to have their family tree traced back to Adam and Eve, and others, even wanted to have their blood line traced back directly to Jesus Christ . A genealogist would be paid to draw up a lavish document according to the wishes of the family, this document would then become an icon of religious devotion for all to see. It may also be of interest that many of the so called prophetic calculations of that time used, also reflected the 9 months of pregnancy of the mother e.g. in 1584 Nachenmoser of Brandwaelden in Kurland, wrote his 'Prognosticon theologicum' which was published in 1588. In this case he used a 42 week pregnancy each of 30 days = 1260 days and as a prophetic day was equal to one year he was working with a total of 1260 years. There are other calculations that were done by other people, (120°+60°?). Julius Friedrich Sachse in his introduction to The Journal of Kelpius, writes "He (Kelpius) divides his entries into six periods and three weeks, which covers seventeen pages of the journal". This is equal to 126 days or units, (=180°?) (12x6 = 72 = ½ of the 144 elements?) which is one tenth of the above. During this period in history there was an obsession with the measurement of time, and especially with the exact time and date of the birth of Christ and the end of the world as his second coming or end of another cycle as researched by the then current astronomers, astrologers, mathematicians, scientists, map makers, navigators, and theologians,etc. This was the dawning of a new landscape of the mind, and an age full of new discoveries. The discovery of the new world, causing perhaps the greatest excitement of all. So much activity became the cause of great persecution of people who wanted to become free, and those who were interested in science and mysticism, metaphysics etc., and who were working for a breakthrough into a new age. The freedom to evolve and the freedom of the mind, and for tolerance of their research activities. The seeds, planted by beacons of fire, have grown within the landscape of the mind, and have moved like a thread through the ages of humanity. "The light of their Star has always been hope which is the last virtue to die". Lord Casper Schwenkfeld of Ossig (1490-1561) , was another founder of a movement of new spiritual thought called The Schwenkfelders. Casper Schwenkfeld was kicked out of the Circle of Reformers, and followed in the footsteps of Martin Luther and was regarded as a mystic in the tradition of Meister Eckhardt, Johannes Tauler, Heinrich Seuse. Casper had an individual spirituality, "I desire that we steadfastly and uprightly grow from within and act with intelligence, belief, and love of God for the betterment of humanity. On the other hand others act by trying from the outside to the inside using ceremonies and sacraments". The Schwenkfelders travelled to the New World some 250+ years ago to Philadelphia, USA . Anabaptists were a another group persecuted by the church/people for thinking differently; along with Schwenkfelders, Quietists, Pietists, Rosicrucians, Enthusiasts, Chilialists (prophets using astronomy ), followers of Weigel (who taught Leibniz ), Neutralists, Phantasts (visionaries), Iatromathematicians (doctors/scientists, and astrologers who were followers of Schwenkfeld and Paracelsus). Georg Rudolph Weckherlin, (1584-1653) who was a renowned German poet and diplomat, also had contact with Pansophische groups, as well as followers of the reformer of education, Comenius, (1592-1670). Weckherlin´s contact with the R+C still has to be researched. It is known that he travelled to London and spent the last half of his life there, and according to an article by Ron Heisler, Weckerlin married the daughter of William Turmbull, Elizabeth Turmbull, and that Weckerlin was appointed an under-secretary of state at Whitehall in 1624 and that he was a keen Palatinist. Heisler also states that Weckherlin´s diary reveals that Weckerlin knew Robert Fludd and had bought a house from him.
Another important person that I would like to bring into the Curriculum Vitae of Simon Studion to try and strengthen the links between Europe and America, is a man called Jakob Zimmerman (1644-1693 ). Zimmerman was a Chiliast, who it is believed was also a Master of an R+C Lodge in Germany. In 1658 he was warned by the Stuttgart legalists that his Chilialism was getting him into trouble. His philosophy was based upon the heliocentric system and its energy as a reflection of the Trinity and its influence upon life. Zimmerman studied the astronomical teachings of Copernicus, (1473-1543 ? ), and the map of the universe according to Descartes´s philosophy (1596-1650). He also studied the writings of Comenius and a book entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton (published in 1687 ! ) and which was dedicated to Duke Rudolf August of Braunschweig and Lüneburg. Zimmerman was in agreement with Newton and also believed that the human microcosmus had the same laws as the macrocosmus. The third part of the book was a work of devotion. Zimmermann refers the reader to the only connection or relationship of Johann Valentin Andreae and the House of the Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (Fursten family). Zimmermann knew that Giodanno Bruno had written a treatise in 1591 on the same subject as Newton, and others. The Bruno document was entitled De Immenso et Innumerabilibus, seu de Universo et mundis which Bruno wrote for Duke Heinrich Julius. Zimmermann wanted to use the 3 Cartesian elements of the universe: Lucidum, Relucidum,... and Pellucidum as the 3 principles of the Macrocosmic universe ... from the historical deductions of Mosaic creation. Zimmermann agreed with others such as Johannes Kepler, Michael Maestlin, J.J. Heinlin, W. Schickard in regards to Copernicus´ picture of the world because of its simplicity. In the period of the pre-Reformation, the dukes wanted a social and scientific reformation and secured it in the science of many things; for example, map-making, navigation, mathematics, astronomy, and especially in the printing of books. At the end of 1693, Zimmermann set off from Hamburg, Germany for the new world of America via London, with 17 people, but only got as far as Rotterdam, where unfortunately he died in 1693. An unknown businessman, (William Penn 1644-1718?) who was a Quaker, purchased 2400 acres in Pennsylvania and paid their travel costs of 130 pounds. Another member of this group was Johannes Kelpius, who held on to the hopes of Zimmermann, and after the death of Zimmermann took the leadership of the group and continued on to England where he and about 45 people were finally able to set sail from London to America on The Good Ship 'Sara Maria' on February the 7th 1694, and arrived in "Germantown" in America on the 24th of June1694.
To close this Curriculum Vitae on Simon Studion I would like to end with the words of H. Spencer Lewis regarding the Militia Crucifera Evangelica . . . "The idea of re-establishing this organisation was born in the mind of the Grand Master of one of the inactive branches in Germany, . . . his name was Simon Studion. . . . and later attained the high degree of Imperator in Germany."
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Copyright © 1999 H.C.A. Pass
The picture on the cover/title page is a reproduction of an engraving of Magister Simon Studion from Urach, Germany, at the age of 50 in 1593 A.D.
* "The rose of Jericho from four of its gates."
* The history of the (then) small fortified village of Mons Beligardae started in the 8th century and had a long history of royal family rulership. One of these families was that of Montfaucon. When the last male heir of the family of Montfaucon fell in a crusade with the emperor Siegismund against the Turks in 1396, the rulership of the County was passed on to the granddaughter of Montfaucon, Henriette of Burgund. Through her marriage to Eberhard IV. of Württemberg, in 1397, the area became a part of The Holy Roman State of The German Nation for 400 years.
Up until 1793, the County of Mompelgard had the old Roman borders of administration (lat. pagus). In the French Revolution the City of Mompelgard fell to the French, and on the 10th of October, 1793 the County, and the City of Mompelgard became a part of France. (In French the City is called Montbeliard).
The "Golden Age", of this City was in fact during the period between 1581-1608 when this `enclosure´ County, was ruled by Duke Friedrich I. of Württemberg. Look up the History of the architect and Master Builder, Heinrich Schickhardt (1558-1634). He travelled to Italy with Friedrich I, and at the age of 42 Schickhardt became the first Master Builder to the State of Württemberg. Sadly he was murdered on the 31st of December 1634.
Some other famous and very interesting people from the City of Mompelgard were:
1.) Zoologist Jean-Leopold Cuvier, born on the 23rd
of August, 1769 .
In 1776 when Sophie-Dorothee of Württemberg married Zar Paul I. of Russia, she went to Russia with him, and a lot of the people of Montbeliard followed her to Russia, and returned home later to spend their old age at home. Parrot was one of them. The City (or town) of Monbeliard is just South of the town of Belfort, on the road to Besancon. West of Besancon is the famous City of Dijon.
Some sources and recommended reading:
H. Spencer Lewis: Rosicrucian
Questions and Answers with Complete History of the Order, 1979
Chronology of some events from the time of Simon Studion:
In Defense of the true Simon Studion - A brief summary of a Scientific Inquiry about an Evangelical Convent (M.C.E.) 1586 in Lüneburg, in Germany.
1543 Birth of Simon Studion:
( between 6 and 7 o'clock on the morning of the 6th of March, in Urach, in the South of Germany)
1548 Birth of Giordano Bruno
1540s Melanchthon und Luther: Geschichtsbild von talmud. Eliaschule u. deren Periodisierung geprägt. Vergleiche: Melanchthons ungarische Schüler (Apokalypsen) bis Naometria etc. Beginn kriegerischer Auseinandersetzungen der Reformationszeit
1546 z.B.. Schmalkaldischer Krieg (Protestant. Bund gg. habsburg-kathol. Reichsmacht )
1555 protestant. Religionsfrieden (Zwinglianer, Calvinisten, Täufer ausgeschlossen )
1561 Naumburger Versammlung über fortschreitende Zerklüftung in orthodox-lutherische und philippistische Richtung Der "Fall" Heinrich IV.
1562 Protestantische Fürsten ( u.a. Pfalz, Württemberg, Hessen-Kassel) fangen an, die franz. Hugenotten gg. die franz. kathol. Königsmacht zu unterstützen.
1567 Französische Agenten werben im Reich für ein Schutzbündnis gg. Spanien-Habsburg, nicht aber gegen die Hugenotten (calvin.) Allianz in Heidelberg und Maulbronn geschlossen.
1560er und 70er: Joh. Casimir und Wolfgang v. Zweibrücken u.a. betreiben wiederholt Truppenwerbungen im Reich für Hugenotten
1571 Philippisten (nach Philipp Melanchthon): Kreis der Kryptocalvinisten agitiert offen für calvinist. Richtung ab 1572 Simon Studion, Dienste als Historiker für würtemberg. Fürst
1574 Beistands-Vertrag Heinr. IV u.Pfalz
1575 Elizabeth I. gehört zu den Geldgebern für Hugenotten
1576 Joh. Cas. sendet Truppen (20 000) für Heinr. IV
1577 Lutherische Theologen ( u.a. Jakob Andreae ) erarbeiten in Torgau (Sachsen) Konkordienformel (Glaubenszwang)= Sammlung und Ausrichtung gegen Reformierte (Calv.in.)
1579 Rudolf II. Köln Versuch eines Friedenskongresses - R. blieb anschließend passiv Segur Pardaillon, Bote zu prot. Fürsten: Vorschlag Allianz mit England gegen Krieg
1583 Giordano Bruno travels to England
1585 Bruno leaves England with Mauvissiere for Paris
1585 Segur P. 2. Mal durch Europa : England Geld, Deutschl. Soldaten für Heinr. IV
1586 Worms: Versammlung: Fürsten und best. Städte beschliessen dem franz. König ( Heinr. III ) Friedensvermittlung mit Heinr. IV anzutragen - Am 11. Okt. abgelehnt durch Heinr.III.
1586 Kursachsen: 2. kryptocalvin. Bewegung neue Gruppe Gelehrter und hoher Beamter setzen reform. Bekenntnis durch Kanzler Nikolaus Krells Verbindungen zu reformierten Fürsten und französischer Krone: Kurfürst Christian trifft sich in Plauen mit Pfalzgraf Johann Casimir. In Torgau wurde ein förmliches Bündnis mit Heinrich IV geschlossen.
1586 Lüneburg meeting of the M.C.E.
1586 Giodano Bruno leaves Paris for Germany & the 'Giordanisten' at the University of Wittenberg
1586 lutheranischer Convent in Lüneburg ? (Quelle ??) Studion´s 'Naometria', Yates, H. Spencer Lewis.
1586 Studion (43) ( Heß (28)?? ) bei evangelischem Konvent (M.C.E.)- Lüneburg inklus. internationalen Regierungsvertretern der Unterstützerstaaten Heinrichs IV.. auch Fürst v.Württemberg Studion als Historiker protokolliert das Treffen vermutlich zuerst für würtemb. Hof (Studion, Lutheraner mit calvinistischer Sympathie ( siehe Analyse Naometria )) Kryptocalvinisten?
1587 Eliz. und Dänemark senden Geld an Joh. Casimir für Heinr. IV
1587 Joh. Cas. setzt erneut ein Heer nach Frankreich in Marsch, das nun England, Dänemark und Navarra (H. IV.) finanzierten.
1587 Hilfesuchen bei dt. Fürsten ( Botschafter Bongars, d´Averly, Sancy ) und England
1593 Death of Duke Ludwig of Württemberg
1596 The first copy of the "Naometria" (Temple Measure), was completed
1600 Giordano Bruno is burned alive. (1548-1600)
1604 The year of the re-birth of another Rosicrucian cycle in Germany,
1604 The revised manuscript of the Naometria [ Nova ] ( part a & b ) was completed
1604 The people of Europe witnessed the appearance of a Super Nova
1608 Death of Duke Friedrich of Württemberg
1610 Heinrich IV. King of France and Navarra is murdered
1610 The three manifestoes were completed at about this time in Tubingen. (Tubingener Circle)